Monday, May 25, 2020

The Day the Mona Lisa Was Stolen

On August 21, 1911, Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa, today one of the most famous paintings in the world, was stolen right off the wall of the Louvre. It was such an inconceivable crime, that the Mona Lisa wasnt even noticed missing until the following day. Who would steal such a famous painting? Why did they do it? Was the Mona Lisa lost forever? The Discovery Everyone had been talking about the glass panes that museum officials at the Louvre had put in front of several of their most important paintings in October 1910. Museum officials said it was to help protect the paintings, especially because of recent acts of vandalism. The public and the press thought the glass was too reflective and detracted from the images. Some Parisians quipped that perhaps art such as the real Mona Lisa had been stolen, and copies were being passed off to the public. Museum director Thà ©ophile Homolle retorted you might as well pretend that one could steal the towers of the cathedral of Notre Dame. Louis Bà ©roud, a painter, decided to join in the debate by painting a young French girl fixing her hair in the reflection from the pane of glass in front of the Mona Lisa. On Tuesday, August 22, 1911, Bà ©roud walked into the Louvre and went to the Salon Carrà © where the Mona Lisa had been on display for five years. But on the wall where the Mona Lisa used to hang, in between Correggios Mystical Marriage and Titians Allegory of Alfonso dAvalos, sat only four iron pegs. Bà ©roud contacted the section head of the guards, who thought the painting must be at the photographers. A few hours later, Bà ©roud checked back with the section head. It was then discovered the Mona Lisa was not with the photographers. The section chief and other guards did a quick search of the museum—no Mona Lisa. Since museum director Homolle was on vacation, the curator of Egyptian antiquities was contacted. He, in turn, called the Paris police. About 60 investigators were sent over to the Louvre shortly after noon. They closed the museum and slowly let out the visitors. They then continued the search. It was finally determined that it was true—the Mona Lisa had been stolen. The Louvre was closed for an entire week to aid the investigation. When it was reopened, a line of people had come to solemnly stare at the empty space on the wall, where the Mona Lisa had once hung. An anonymous visitor left a bouquet of flowers. Museum director Homolle lost his job. Why Did No One Notice? Later reports would show that the painting was stolen for 26 hours before anyone noticed it.   In retrospect, thats not all that shocking. The Louvre Museum is the largest in the world, covering an area of about 15 acres. Security was weak; reports are that there were only about 150 guards, and incidents of art stolen or damaged inside the museum had happened a few years earlier. In addition, at the time, the Mona Lisa was not all that famous. Although known to be an early 16th-century work of Leonardo da Vinci, only a small but growing circle of art critics and aficionados were aware that it was special. The theft of the painting would change that forever.   The Clues Unfortunately, there wasnt much evidence to go on. The most important discovery was found on the first day of the investigation. About an hour after the 60 investigators began searching the Louvre, they found the controversial plate of glass and Mona Lisas frame lying in a staircase. The frame, an ancient one donated by Countess de Bà ©arn two years prior, had not been damaged. Investigators and others speculated that the thief grabbed the painting off the wall, entered the stairwell, removed the painting from its frame, then somehow left the museum unnoticed. But when did all this take place? Investigators began to interview guards and workers to determine when the Mona Lisa went missing. One worker remembered having seen the painting around 7 oclock on Monday morning (a day before it was discovered missing) but noticed it gone when he walked by the Salon Carrà © an hour later. He had assumed a museum official had moved it. Further research discovered that the usual guard in the Salon Carrà © was home (one of his children had the measles) and his replacement admitted leaving his post for a few minutes around 8 oclock to smoke a cigarette. All of this evidence pointed to the theft occurring somewhere between 7:00 and 8:30 on Monday morning. But on Mondays, the Louvre was closed for cleaning. So, was this an inside job? Approximately 800 people had access to the Salon Carrà © on Monday morning. Wandering throughout the museum were museum officials, guards, workmen, cleaners, and photographers. Interviews with these people brought out very little. One person thought they had seen a stranger hanging out, but he was unable to match the strangers face with photos at the police station. The investigators brought in Alphonse Bertillon, a famous fingerprint expert. He found a thumbprint on the Mona Lisas frame, but he was unable to match it with any in his files. There was a scaffold against one side of the museum that was there to aid the installation of an elevator. This could have given access to a would-be thief to the museum. Besides believing that the thief had to have at least some internal knowledge of the museum, there really wasnt much evidence. So, whodunnit? Who Stole the Painting? Rumors and theories about the identity and motive of the thief spread like wildfire. Some Frenchmen blamed the Germans, believing the theft a ploy to demoralize their country. Some Germans thought it was a ploy by the French to distract from international concerns. The prefect of the police had several theories, quoted in a 1912 story in The New York Times: The thieves—I am inclined to think there were more than one—got away with it all right. So far nothing is known of their identity and whereabouts. I am certain that the motive was not a political one, but maybe it is a case of sabotage, brought about by discontent among the Louvre employees. Possibly, on the other hand, the theft was committed by a maniac. A more serious possibility is that  La Gioconda  was stolen by someone who plans to make a monetary profit by blackmailing the Government. Other theories blamed a Louvre worker, who stole the painting in order to reveal how bad the Louvre was protecting these treasures. Still, others believed the whole thing was done as a joke and that the painting would be returned anonymously shortly. On September 7, 1911, 17 days after the theft, the French arrested the French poet and playwright Guillaume Apollinaire. Five days later, he was released. Though Apollinaire was a friend of Gà ©ry Pià ©ret, someone who had been stealing artifacts right under the guards noses for quite a while, there was no evidence that Apollinaire had any knowledge or had in any way participated in the theft of the  Mona Lisa. Though the public was restless and the investigators were searching, the  Mona Lisa  did not show up. Weeks went by. Months went by. Then years went by. The latest theory was that the painting had been accidentally destroyed during a cleaning and the museum was using the idea of a theft as a cover-up. Two years went by with no word about the real  Mona Lisa. And then the thief made contact. The Robber Makes Contact In the fall of 1913, two years after the  Mona Lisa  was stolen, a well-known antique dealer in Florence, Italy named Alfredo Geri innocently placed an ad in several Italian newspapers which stated that he was a buyer at good prices of art objects of every sort.   Soon after he placed the ad, Geri received a letter dated Nov. 29, 1913, that stated the writer was in possession of the stolen  Mona Lisa. The letter had a post office box in Paris as a return address and had been signed only as Leonardo. Though Geri thought he was dealing with someone who had a copy rather than the real  Mona Lisa, he contacted Commendatore Giovanni Poggi, museum director of Florences Uffizi museum. Together, they decided that Geri would write a letter in return saying that he would need to see the painting before he could offer a price. Another letter came almost immediately asking Geri to go to Paris to see the painting. Geri replied, stating that he could not go to Paris, but, instead, arranged for Leonardo to meet him in Milan on Dec. 22. On December 10, 1913, an Italian man with a mustache appeared at Geris sales office in Florence. After waiting for other customers to leave, the stranger told Geri that he was Leonardo Vincenzo and that he had the  Mona Lisa  back in his hotel room. Leonardo stated that he wanted a half million lire for the painting. Leonardo explained that he had stolen the painting in order to restore to Italy what had been stolen from it by Napoleon. Thus, Leonardo made the stipulation that the  Mona Lisa  was to be hung at the Uffizi and never given back to France. With some quick, clear thinking, Geri agreed to the price but said the director of the Uffizi would want to see the painting before agreeing to hang it in the museum. Leonardo then suggested they meet in his hotel room the next day. Upon his leaving, Geri contacted the police and the Uffizi. The Return of the Painting The following day, Geri and the Uffizi museum director Poggi appeared at Leonardos hotel room. Leonardo pulled out a wooden trunk, which contained a pair of underwear, some old shoes, and a shirt. Beneath that Leonardo removed a false bottom—and there lay the  Mona Lisa. Geri and the museum director noticed and recognized the Louvre seal on the back of the painting. This was obviously the real  Mona Lisa. The museum director said that he would need to compare the painting with other works by Leonardo da Vinci. They then walked out with the painting. The Caper Leonardo Vincenzo, whose real name was Vincenzo Peruggia, was arrested. Peruggia, born in Italy, had worked in Paris at the Louvre in 1908. He and two accomplices, the brothers Vincent and Michele Lancelotti, had entered the museum on Sunday and hid in a storeroom. The next day, while the museum was closed, the men dressed in workmans smocks came out of the storeroom, removed the protective glass and the frame. The Lancelotti brothers left by a staircase, dumping the frame and glass in the staircase, and, still known by many of the guards, Peruggia grabbed the  Mona Lisa—painted on a white polar panel measuring 38x21 inches—and simply walked out of the museums front door with the  Mona Lisa  under his painters smock. Peruggia hadnt had a plan to dispose of the painting; his only goal, so he said, was to return it to Italy: but he may well have done it for the money. The hue and cry over the loss made the painting far more famous than before, and it was now far too dangerous to try to sell too quickly. The public went wild at the news of finding the  Mona Lisa. The painting was displayed at the Uffizi and throughout Italy before it was returned to France on Dec. 30, 1913. After Effects The men were tried and found guilty in a tribunal in 1914. Peruggia received a one year sentence, which was later reduced to seven months and he went home to Italy: there was a war in the works and a resolved art theft was no longer newsworthy. The Mona Lisa became world-famous: her face is one of the most recognizable in the world today, printed on mugs, bags, and t-shirts around the globe. Sources and Further Reading McLeave, Hugh. Rogues in the Gallery: The Modern Plague of Art Thefts. Raleigh, NC: Boson Books, 2003.  McMullen, Roy. Mona Lisa: The Picture and the Myth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1975.Nagesh, Ashitha. Mona Lisa is moving: What does it take to keep her safe? BBC News, 16 July 2019.  Scotti, R.A. The Lost Mona Lisa: The Extraordinary True Story of the Greatest Art Theft in History. New York: Bantam, 2009.  --- Vanished Smile: The Mysterious Theft of the Mona Lisa. New York: Random House, 2010.  The Theft That Made The Mona Lisa A Masterpiece. National Public Radio, July 30, 2011.  Three more held in Mona Lisa theft; French Police Seize Two Men and a Woman on Perugias Information. The New York Times, Dec. 22, 1913. 3.  Zug, James. Stolen: How the Mona Lisa Became the World’s Most Famous Painting. Smithsonian.com, June 15, 2011.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Essay on Trends in the Hospitality Indus - 1441 Words

Trends in the Hospitality Industry Nowadays trends are everywhere. You can find them in every industry and they play a huge role. The retro trend in clothing, the SUV trend in the car industry, but nowhere else are trends more important than in the hospitality industry. But what exactly is a trend? A trend describes usually the time measurable course of a development into a certain quantitative and/or qualitative direction. In economics, trends are changes of the behavior of the society. In marketing research this describes the change and development of the consumerism and consumption behavior. In old days it was okay for a hotel to have only rooms and a restaurant. Today a hotel has to have a recreation centre, a beauty farm, a shopping†¦show more content†¦The hotels are preparing themselfes for that. Staff which speaks all kinds of languages, the guests can have food from their home country and they can even watch their favotite TV channels. The amount of international trips raised about 2%. A lot of business travellers want to stay in well known hotels like Mariott or Hilton. Only 16% want to stay in individual hotels. So for the industry it is important to have a very good reputation. Of course the people try to get the best price for a room and most hotels have company rates which are below the normal rack rate. Also important for a booking is the location of the hotel and the bonus programs. For 26% of the guests Airline milage is important. So the hotels have to work with airline companies and they want special conditons as well. Because of the fast going world today the guests have no time to wait long for the check-in or check-out procedures. They expect Express service. Also 68% want complimentary transportation to the airport. The Opryland Hotel Convention Center in Nashville, Tennessee, developed a system to avoid long check-in or check-out times. You can check-in or out via credit card. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Connection of Terrorism and the Middle East Essay - 702 Words

You are the new Security guard at the International Airport. You made sure everything was in order and that people safely went to their designated flight. As you were walking around the airport, you notice a Middle-aged man carrying a large suitcase. The man seems nervous and is looking around as if he is lost. However, as you approach him, your intention of helping the man vanishes when you notice that the man is wearing a type of scarf around his head and a long white garment that distinguishes him as a Muslim. Instantly, flashes of the 9/11 attacks come rushing in your mind as you confronted the man about his nervousness. The man explained that his flight was arriving soon and that his friend is running a little late. You still†¦show more content†¦Muslims are sometimes seen as terrorists to some Americans, however Americans are seen no different to Muslims. The economy and war in the Middle East attracted U.S. attention. For example, the Middle East is famous for their d iscovery of oil. The oil became a center of balanced power and helped increased technology in the U.S. (Del Priore, 27 Mar. 2013). The Middle East opened up a large economic opportunity for the U.S. to trade goods. The demand of oil in the Middle East is highly needed, which creates a concern for the Middle East in giving their oil to foreigners. In addition, Iran poses a problem to the U.S. regarding the use of nuclear weapons, hatred towards Israel, and is a state sponsor of terrorism (Del Priore, 27 Mar. 2013). Iran is capable of committing violent acts towards the people of Israel. Iran could get innocent people hurt if their hatred gets to point of the U.S. to take drastic actions. The U.S. wanted to get involved in the U.S. because of its economic opportunities, but the tensions between the Middle East and Israel still continues to pose a concern. Arabs and Jews despised one another due to bad events in their past. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Importance of the Marketing Mix free essay sample

Introduction The term â€Å"marketing mix† was introduced by Neil Borden in his 1964 article â€Å"The Concept of the Marketing Mix†. Borden’s (1964) original marketing mix was a list of 12 elements that make up a marketing programme. McCarthy (1964) refined Borden’s list and reduced Borden’s 12 elements to four Ps: product, price, place and promotion. In addition, McCarthy (1964) defined the marketing mix as â€Å"a combination of all the factors at a marketing manager’s command to satisfy the target market† (Groucutt, Leadly and Forsyth, 2004: 17). For Grà ¶nroos (1994), the four Ps has become â€Å"the universal marketing model or even theory and an almost totally dominating paradigm for most academics†. In recent years, the concept of the four Ps has been faced with a lot of criticism due to its oversimplification (Lauterborn, 1990; Waterschoot van der Bulte, 1992; Kotler, 1984; Gummesson, 1997). The purpose of this essay will be to an alyse critically the four Ps of the marketing framework in view of its usefulness. We will write a custom essay sample on Importance of the Marketing Mix or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1. The marketing mix framework Marketing is a broad and complex subject (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006). Therefore a model is needed which reflects the complex subject in a simplified form by mapping the essential elements and their relationships to each other, thus used for description, explanation and design in practice. This is achieved by the four Ps of the marketing concept. One of the main reasons why the framework has been extremely influential in marketing theory and practice is because of its simplicity and easy understanding (Grà ¶nroos, 1994). Nowadays, successful companies like â€Å"Diesel† rely on the marketing concept and underpin its utility (The Times 100, 2010). 2. Criticism of the four Ps of Marketing Borden’s (1964) intention was not to create a fixed framework. Quite the contrary, he assumed that others might build a different mix. But in fact, when comparing McCarthy’s (1964) four Ps with Borden’s (1964) 12 elements on theoretical base, it appears to be too limited. First of all it looks as if the concept of the four Ps focuses too much on product instead of customer. Dixon and Blois (1983, cited in Grà ¶nroos, 1994: 6) states: â€Å"The views implicit in the four P approach is that the customer is somebody to whom  something is done!†. This suggests, that the marketing mix rather manipulate than identify and satisfy customer needs. For Grà ¶nroos (1994), due to increasing globalization and competition, customer relationship and retention are essential elements of 21st century marketing. Essentially, it appears that the four Ps contain no personalized relationships between seller and customer. That leads to another problem, particularly in the fi elds of industrial and service marketing. The four Ps of the marketing concept seems to be orientated towards consumer goods and therefore it might fit well. But in industrial marketing, where the focus is on buyer-seller relationships and not products, the four Ps are not enough because of its lack of personal contacts (Webster, 1984 cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 4). Industrial Marketing requires more coordination between buyer and seller due to its product and buying process complexity (Webster, 1984 cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 4). Another sector, where the four Ps reaches its limits, is the growing service based economy. Services are quite different from consumer goods, because of their intangibility. Furthermore it is difficult to compare quality of related services and to set the right price. Thus, the four Ps appear inadequate and need to be modified for services and also extended (Booms Bitner, 1981, cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995:6) 3. The seven Ps of service marketing Booms and Bitner (1981) developed a new framework, the seven Ps mix, by adding three elements to the traditional four Ps: participants, physical evidence and processes (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). Participants in the Booms and Bitner (1981) framework are all people who are involved in the consumption of a service. The staff for example, plays a major role to guarantee quality and gives a service additional value. Physical evidence covers the environment in which the service is delivered (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). It is important that services are made tangible for customers to determine the quality. Process is important to ensure that the consumer understands getting a service (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). However, critics could argue that the additional three Ps are not necessary and could be assimilated into the four Ps of the marketing mix concept. But in fact it is essential to separate them from the basic four Ps, to highlight their importance (Bitner, 1990, cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 7). Table 1 shows  the strengths and weaknesses of the two frameworks, according to a survey by Rafiq and Ahmed (1995). Table 1: Strengths and weaknesses of the 4Ps and 7Ps (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 13) modified by David Boersig The figure shows that the seven Ps provide some advantages to the four Ps and it is a good extension that should kept in mind. The results of the survey by Rafiq and Ahmed (1995) suggest that there might be a need for change towards the seven Ps framework. In any case, it is important that the Ps are not being seen as individual categories. The whole marketing concept must be internally coherent and each company will have to develop their individual marketing mix that creates competitive edge (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006). Conclusion The four Ps simplifies the complexity of marketing and has become influential in both theory and practice. However, it is important to remember that the marketing mix is a model and cannot include everything. The marketing mix  should not be seen as a fix. Today, in a changing world, the marketing mix has to be flexible and up to date. A company that is too much product focused and ignore customer needs, will get left behind by competitors. Nevertheless, in service marketing, the four Ps of the marketing concept reach its limits. The seven Ps framework of Booms and Bitner (1981) provide an appropriate extension to them. Finally, regardless of what the critics think about the four Ps framework, there is one thing that marketing can never be: Perfect. Importance of the Marketing Mix free essay sample Introduction The term â€Å"marketing mix† was introduced by Neil Borden in his 1964 article â€Å"The Concept of the Marketing Mix†. Borden’s (1964) original marketing mix was a list of 12 elements that make up a marketing programme. McCarthy (1964) refined Borden’s list and reduced Borden’s 12 elements to four Ps: product, price, place and promotion. In addition, McCarthy (1964) defined the marketing mix as â€Å"a combination of all the factors at a marketing manager’s command to satisfy the target market† (Groucutt, Leadly and Forsyth, 2004: 17). For Grà ¶nroos (1994), the four Ps has become â€Å"the universal marketing model or even theory and an almost totally dominating paradigm for most academics†. In recent years, the concept of the four Ps has been faced with a lot of criticism due to its oversimplification (Lauterborn, 1990; Waterschoot van der Bulte, 1992; Kotler, 1984; Gummesson, 1997). The purpose of this essay will be to analyse critically the four Ps of the marketing framework in view of its usefulness. We will write a custom essay sample on Importance of the Marketing Mix or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1. The marketing mix framework Marketing is a broad and complex subject (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006). Therefore a model is needed which reflects the complex subject in a simplified form by mapping the essential elements and their relationships to each other, thus used for description, explanation and design in practice. This is achieved by the four Ps of the marketing concept. One of the main reasons why the framework has been extremely influential in marketing theory and practice is because of its simplicity and easy understanding (Grà ¶nroos, 1994). Nowadays, successful companies like â€Å"Diesel† rely on the marketing concept and underpin its utility (The Times 100, 2010). 2. Criticism of the four Ps of Marketing Borden’s (1964) intention was not to create a fixed framework. Quite the contrary, he assumed that others might build a different mix. But in fact, when comparing McCarthy’s (1964) four Ps with Borden’s (1964) 12 elements on theoretical base, it appears to be too limited. First of all it looks as if the concept of the four Ps focuses too much on product instead of customer. Dixon and Blois (1983, cited in Grà ¶nroos, 1994: 6) states: â€Å"The views implicit in the four P approach is that the customer is somebody to whom something is done!†. This suggests, that the marketing mix rather manipulate than identify and satisfy customer needs. For Grà ¶nroos (1994), due to increasing globalization and competition, customer relationship and retention are essential elements of 21st century marketing. Essentially, it appears that the four Ps contain no personalized relationships between seller and customer. That leads to another problem, particularly in the fields of industrial and service marketing. The four Ps of the marketing concept seems to be orientated towards consumer goods and therefore it might fit well. But in industrial marketing, where the focus is on buyer-seller relationships and not products, the four Ps are not enough because of its lack of personal contacts (Webster, 1984 cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 4). Industrial Marketing requires more coordination between buyer and seller due to its product and buying process complexity (Webster, 1984 cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 4). Another sector, where the four Ps reaches its limits, is the growing service based economy. Services are quite different from consumer goods, because of their intangibility. Furthermore it is difficult to compare quality of related services and to set the right price. Thus, the four Ps appear inadequate and need to be modified for services and also extended (Booms Bitner, 1981, cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995:6) 3. The seven Ps of service marketing Booms and Bitner (1981) developed a new framework, the seven Ps mix, by adding three elements to the traditional four Ps: participants, physical evidence and processes (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). Participants in the Booms and Bitner (1981) framework are all people who are involved in the consumption of a service. The staff for example, plays a major role to guarantee quality and gives a service additional value. Physical evidence covers the environment in which the service is delivered (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). It is important that services are made tangible for customers to determine the quality. Process is important to ensure that the consumer understands getting a service (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995). However, critics could argue that the additional three Ps are not necessary and could be assimilated into the four Ps of the marketing mix concept. But in fact it is essential to separate them from the basic four Ps, to highlight their importance (Bitner, 1990, cited in Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 7). Table 1 shows the strengths and weaknesses of the two frameworks, according to a survey by Rafiq and Ahmed (1995). 7 Ps 4 Ps Strengths More comprehensive More refined Broader perspective Simplicity and ease of understanding Easy to memorize Good pedagogic tool, especially for introductory marketing Weaknesses More complicated Extra elements can be incorporated in 4Ps Controllability of the three new elements Too simple, not broad enough Service Relationship marketing Table 1: Strengths and weaknesses of the 4Ps and 7Ps (Rafiq and Ahmed, 1995: 13) modified by David Boersig The figure shows that the seven Ps provide some advantages to the four Ps and it is a good extension that should kept in mind. The results of the survey by Rafiq and Ahmed (1995) suggest that there might be a need for change towards the seven Ps framework. In any case, it is important that the Ps are not being seen as individual categories. The whole marketing concept must be internally coherent and each company will have to develop their individual marketing mix that creates competitive edge (Brassington and Pettitt, 2006). Conclusion The four Ps simplifies the complexity of marketing and has become influential in both theory and practice. However, it is important to remember that the marketing mix is a model and cannot include everything. The marketing mix should not be seen as a fix. Today, in a changing world, the marketing mix has to be flexible and up to date. A company that is too much product focused and ignore customer needs, will get left behind by competitors. Nevertheless, in service marketing, the four Ps of the marketing concept reach its limits. The seven Ps framework of Booms and Bitner (1981) provide an appropriate extension to them. Finally, regardless of what the critics think about the four Ps framework, there is one thing that marketing can never be: Perfect.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

The Problem of Evil Augustine and Irenaeus Essay Example

The Problem of Evil: Augustine and Irenaeus Paper Explain how the theodicy of Irenaeus differs from that of Augustine. One of the main arguments used by non-believers against the existence of God is the presence of evil and suffering in the world. The term ‘evil’ is often used to describe something that is morally wrong. Philosophers make a distinction between moral evil and natural evil. Moral evil results from human actions that are morally reproachable, and Natural evil results from the malfunctioning of the natural world, which produces entities such as disease and famine. St Augustine (354 – 430CE) based his arguments on the Bible, especially the accounts of the creation and the fall in Genesis. His influential theodicy rests upon two major assumptions; evil did not come from God since God’s creation was faultless and perfect, and evil came from elsewhere and God is justified in allowing it to stay. Augustine started from the assumption that God is wholly good and that God created a world free from faults. Following the teaching in Genesis 1, Augustine emphasised that ‘All God has made pleased Him’; suffering and evil were therefore unknown. He made the logical point that it is not possible for God to be responsible for evil since evil is ‘not a substance’. Instead, evil refers to what is lacking in a thing; it is a ‘privation of good’. Augustine used the analogy of blindness, which is not an entity in itself but an absence of sight. If God cannot have created evil, Augustine traced its origin to those areas within the world that have free will; specifically, angels and human beings. These abused God’s gift of freedom and chose wilfully to turn their attention away from God, the supreme good, and to idolise instead ‘lesser goods’. We will write a custom essay sample on The Problem of Evil: Augustine and Irenaeus specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Problem of Evil: Augustine and Irenaeus specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Problem of Evil: Augustine and Irenaeus specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In keeping with the story of the fall in Genesis 3, he argued that the desire for power proved too much for Adam and Eve, who were tempted by Satan, a fallen angel, to break God’s command and to eat the forbidden fruit. Having explained the origin of evil, Augustine went on to show that all suffering is a fully deserved consequence of human sin. Natural evil originated from the loss of order within nature following the first sin. This destroyed the delicate balance of the world. From then on, there was to be hostility between humans and other creatures. Humans would have to battle constantly to grow enough food. Pain, such as that resulting in childbirth, entered the world, along with death. The first sin also caused the world to become distanced from God. In this new and damaged environment, remote from God, moral evil flourished and spread. Augustine concluded his theory with a reminder of God’s grace: if God was simply just, everyone would go to their rightful punishment in Hell. Through His grace, however, God sent His son to die on the cross so that some might be saved and go to Heaven. This shows that God is merciful as well as just. Irenaeus (c. 130 – 202CE), as with Augustine, traced evil back to human free will. He differs in that he admits that God did not make a perfect world and that evil has a valuable role to play in God’s plan for humans. Unlike Augustine, Irenaeus admitted that God is partly responsible for evil. His responsibility extends to creating humans imperfectly, and making it their task to develop to perfection. This idea is based upon Irenaeus’ interpretation of Genesis, where God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. ’ Irenaeus concluded that at first, humans were made in God’s image and only later would develop into His likeness. For Irenaeus, being in God’s image involved having intelligence, morality, and personality, yet it lacked completion. Completion would only be gained upon transformation into God’s likeness. It was Irenaeus’ claim that evil was an essential means to this transformation. Irenaeus explained that humans did choose evil, which is why the fall occurred. But although evil clearly makes life difficult, it nevertheless is beneficial in that it enables us to understand what good is; â€Å"How, if we had no knowledge of the contrary, could we have instruction in that which is good? † – Irenaeus. Having explained the necessity of both potential and actual evil, Irenaeus looked ahead to Heaven, where everybody will have completed the development into God’s likeness, and where the sufferings on Earth will have been long forgotten.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Graphic Design in Society Essay Example

Graphic Design in Society Essay Example Graphic Design in Society Essay Graphic Design in Society Essay EPARTS 191 – DESIGN IN SOCIETY ASSIGNMENT TASK 2 Essay Graphic design is the art of communication. The designer takes an idea and creates a visual experience to communicate an idea, or to send a specific message to the responder through both printed and electronic means. Imagine a world without graphic design, you may not realise it right now but graphic design is everywhere. It’s what attracts you to a product or business and forces you to understand the message at the point of its creation. If the message is not clear then the graphic designer has failed. In this essay I will be discussing the history of graphic design, notable and popular styles, and the age old debate of computer versus the creative process, what the future holds and in turn proving that graphic design is the most important design discipline in our society. Graphic design has always existed, it has always been there for artists to express themselves and documents show that it goes back to the late 19th century at least but in my opinion graphic design never became more important and known until the Bauhaus was opened in 1919. The Bauhaus or House of Building was an art school in Germany which pioneered simplistic design and became a style of design itself, although it only existed for 14 years. The style is still heavily popular today within examples such as Ikea who produce simplistic furniture, advertisements, accessories etc and sell unfathomable amounts each year. This couldn’t happen and continue to happen if it wasn’t for successful graphic design and the elegant Swiss style I talk about below. : With each era a new style emerged to match the changes in society, throughout the 1960’s when the hippy lifestyle was adopted it was shown heavily through the art produced. Posters were full colour, bright and flowing and colour theory was well used. The responder’s eyes were immediately drawn to the swirling and often unorthodox patterns which assisted in making it unique. The American ‘Big Idea’ style became popular in around 1950’s and is still used today. In brief this style is generally a provocative or stimulating mage with short headline over the top; it was also known as the ‘picture is worth a thousand words’ approach (Heller Balance 2001). Another notable style is the Swiss approach which also uses simplistic techniques as well as symmetry and gridlines (which made most designs produced relatively predictable) to produce more logical designs as opposed to emotional or subjective. Why is it that in these modern times everything is computer based, computer done or needs a computer to begin it but does that take away from ones creative thinking? It’s debatable whether the speed and efficiency of computers stops graphic designers from studying their project/s in finer detail and thus not providing as higher results as hand drawing or rendering. In my opinion nothing can ever make lead up sketches obsolete, putting a pencil to paper and loosely drawing ideas is umpteen times faster than computer aided design (although using a tablet may increase speed). From my experience drawing on paper first allows you to relax and not concentrate as hard, in which ideas come about more freely than if you were to concentrate into drawing on a computer program such as Illustrator. Graphic design is innovation and advancement; it documents the growth of society and the changing of views, ideals, opinions and any other kind of free speech a person can express. If you look around, you can pinpoint most graphic designer’s styles down to someone work prior, be it taking inspiration or taking tips it becomes somewhat of a building block. With newer technology comes newer ways to do things but traditional methods will never go out of style, how can you say a design discipline that has successfully been around for roughly 100 years can die out? In conclusion, what a boring and colourless life we would live in without graphic design; who would be there to trick us into purchasing and believing things. Heller, S. Balance, G. (2001). Graphic Design History. Allworth Communications Inc.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Forecasting methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Forecasting methods - Essay Example In a stable data, the forecast for any period is equivalent to actual value of previous periods. Companies compile data to determine their current values and future position in business. Companies like Puma and Nike uses this technique to determine market progress and future sales volume. Communication and transport industries also use this technique to assess their progress (Turchin, 2010). Estimating the average forecast is another techniques used by many organization. The value is calculated by determining forecast error. In determining forecast error, the actual value is subtracted from the predicted value of a time series. Forecast error can be either a calendar forecast or cross sectional forecast error. In calculation of forecast error, an organization can use calculating methods such as root mean squared error, mean percentage error, forecast bias and tracking signal (Kimberly, 2008). Some organization like Emirates Airline, Virgin Atlantic uses this technique. Use of forecast techniques has led to growth of many companies and industries. Each business organization should consider using forecast methods to determine